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Viestiketju: Keinotekoisista makeutusaineista

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  1. #1
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    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29760482
    NNS consumption was not found to elevate blood glucose level. Future studies are warranted to assess the health implications of frequent and chronic NNS consumption and elucidate the underlying biological mechanisms.

  3. #3
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    Erikoinen meta-analyysi, kun kaikki makeutusaineet niputettu yhteen. Yhtä spedetasoa kuin se eräs antioksidanttianalyysi, jossa kaikki antioksidanttilisät oli niputettu samaan läjään. Tosin saatan tutkailla makeutusainetutkimuksia vinoutunein linssein, sillä vihaan nykyisin niiden makua
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  4. #4
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    Meta-analysis was performed to estimate and track the trajectory of blood glucose concentrations over time after NNS consumption, and to test differential effects by type of NNS and participants’ age, weight, and disease status.
    ..

  5. #5
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    Appetite. 2013 Jan;60(1):203-207. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2012.10.009. Epub 2012 Oct 23.

    Saccharin and aspartame, compared with sucrose, induce greater weight gain in adult Wistar rats, at similar total caloric intake levels.

    Feijó FM1, Ballard CR1, Foletto KC1, Batista BAM2, Neves AM2, Ribeiro MFM2, Bertoluci MC3.



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    Abstract

    It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) can lead to weight gain, but evidence regarding their real effect in body weight and satiety is still inconclusive. Using a rat model, the present study compares the effect of saccharin and aspartame to sucrose in body weight gain and in caloric intake. Twenty-nine male Wistar rats received plain yogurt sweetened with 20% sucrose, 0.3% sodium saccharin or 0.4% aspartame, in addition to chow and water ad libitum, while physical activity was restrained. Measurements of cumulative body weight gain, total caloric intake, caloric intake of chow and caloric intake of sweetened yogurt were performed weekly for 12 weeks. Results showed that addition of either saccharin or aspartame to yogurt resulted in increased weight gain compared to addition of sucrose, however total caloric intake was similar among groups. In conclusion, greater weight gain was promoted by the use of saccharin or aspartame, compared with sucrose, and this weight gain was unrelated to caloric intake. We speculate that a decrease in energy expenditure or increase in fluid retention might be involved.


    PMID: 23088901 DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2012.10.009
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  6. #6
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    Nutr Metab (Lond). 2017 Feb 20;14:18. doi: 10.1186/s12986-017-0165-7. eCollection 2017.

    Long-term intake of saccharin decreases post-absortive energy expenditure at rest and is associated to greater weight gain relative to sucrose in wistar rats.

    Pinto DE1, Foletto KC1, Nunes RB2, Lago PD2, Bertoluci MC1,3.



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    Abstract

    BACKGROUND:

    Non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) have been associated with increased prevalence of obesity. In previous studies, we demonstrated that saccharin could induce an increase in weight gain either when compared to sucrose or to a non-sweetened control at a similar total caloric intake. These data raised the hypothesis that reduced energy expenditure (EE) could be a potential mechanism explaining greater weight gain with saccharin use in rats. The aim of the present study was to compare long-term energy expenditure at rest between rats using saccharin or sucrose and correlate it with weight gain. .

    METHODS:

    In the present study, we examine the potential impact of saccharin compared to sucrose in the EE of Wistar rats. In a controlled experiment of 17 weeks, 24 Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups: saccharin-sweetened yogurt (SAC) or sucrose-sweetened yogurt (SUC), plus a free chow diet. Only rats that consumed at least 70% of the offered yogurt were included. EE (kcal/day) was determined at rest through open circuit indirect calorimetry system in the early post-absorptive period with determinations of both VO2 consumption and CO2 production. Measurements were evaluated at baseline, 5 and 12 weeks of dietary intervention. Weight gain, caloric intake (from yogurt, from chow and total) were determined weekly.

    RESULTS:

    Body weight and EE were similar between groups at baseline: (p = .35) and (p = .67) respectively. At the end of the study, SAC increased total weight gain significantly more in relation to SUC (p = .03). Cumulative total caloric intake (yogurt plus chow) was similar between groups during the whole period (p = .54). At 12 weeks, the EE was smaller in SAC compared to SUC (p = .009). Considering both groups, there was a strong negative correlation between total weight gain and change in EE observed [r(20) = -.61, p = .003]. However, when analyzing the groups separately we found that SUC maintained this inverse correlation [r(8) = -.68, p = .03], while SAC did not [r(10) = -.33, p = .29].

    CONCLUSION:

    These data support the hypothesis that long-term use of saccharin may blunt post-absorptive EE at rest in Wistar rats, which is related to weight gain. On the other hand, long-term sucrose intake can increase energy expenditure in rats. This effect combined can explain, at least partially, the weight gain increases associated to saccharin in relation to sucrose in these animals.


    KEYWORDS:

    Energy expenditure; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Oxygen consumption; Saccharin; Sucrose; Weight gain
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  7. #7
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    Behav Neurosci. 2013 Apr;127(2):262-74. doi: 10.1037/a0031717. Epub 2013 Feb 11.

    Adverse effects of high-intensity sweeteners on energy intake and weight control in male and obesity-prone female rats.

    Swithers SE1, Sample CH, Davidson TL.



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    Abstract

    The use of high-intensity sweeteners has been proposed as a method to combat increasing rates of overweight and obesity in the human population. However, previous work with male rats suggests that consumption of such sweeteners might contribute to, rather than ameliorate, weight gain. The goals of the present experiments were to assess whether intake of high-intensity sweeteners is associated with increased food intake and body weight gain in female rats; to evaluate whether this effect depends on composition of the maintenance diet (i.e., standard chow compared with diets high in energy, fat, and sugar [HE diets]); and to determine whether the phenotype of the rats with regard to propensity to gain weight on HE diets affects the consequences of consuming high-intensity sweeteners. The data demonstrated that female rats fed a low-fat, standard laboratory chow diet did not gain extra weight when fed yogurt dietary supplements sweetened with saccharin compared with those fed glucose-sweetened dietary supplements. However, female rats maintained on a "Westernized" diet high in fat and sugar (HE diet) showed significant increases in energy intake, weight gain, and adiposity when given saccharin-sweetened compared with glucose-sweetened yogurt supplements. These differences were most pronounced in female rats known to be prone to obesity prior to the introduction of the yogurt diets. Both selectively bred Crl:OP[CD] rats and outbred Sprague-Dawley rats fed an HE diet showing high levels of weight gain (diet-induced obese [DIO] rats) had increased weight gain in response to consuming saccharin-sweetened compared with glucose-sweetened supplements. However, in male rats fed an HE diet, saccharin-sweetened supplements produced extra weight gain regardless of obesity phenotype. These results suggest that the most negative consequences of consuming high-intensity sweeteners may occur in those most likely to use them for weight control, females consuming a "Westernized" diet and already prone to excess weight gain.


    PMID: 23398432 PMCID: PMC3985091 DOI: 10.1037/a0031717
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  8. #8
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    J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2018 Jun;32(6):e22053. doi: 10.1002/jbt.22053. Epub 2018 Apr 16.

    Evaluation of long-term effects of artificial sweeteners on rat brain: a biochemical, behavioral, and histological study.

    Erbaş O1, Erdoğan MA2, Khalilnezhad A2, Solmaz V3, Gürkan FT2, Yiğittürk G4, Eroglu HA5, Taskiran D2.



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    Abstract

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of artificial sweeteners (aspartame, saccharin, and sucralose) on rat brain. Twenty-four adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were included in the study. The control group (n = 6) received regular tap water, whereas other groups received aspartame (3 mg/kg/day, n = 6,) or saccharin (3 mg/kg/day, n = 6) or sucralose (1.5 mg/kg/day, n = 6) in the drinking water. Following 6 weeks, the passive avoidance learning (PAL) test was performed to evaluate the neurobehavioral effects of sweeteners. The brains were assessed for lipid peroxides, neuron count, and Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrated that chronic intake of sweeteners significantly impaired PAL performance in all groups. Hippocampal CA1-CA3 areas revealed significantly lower neuronal count in aspartame and increased GFAP expression in all groups. Brain lipid peroxides were significantly higher in all groups. Our findings suggest that long-term consumption of artificial sweeteners may have harmful effects on cognition and hippocampal integrity in rats.


    KEYWORDS:

    artificial sweeteners; brain; oxidative stress; passive avoidance learning; rat
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  9. #9
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    CMAJ. 2017 Jul 17;189(28):E929-E939. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.161390.

    Nonnutritive sweeteners and cardiometabolic health: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies.

    Azad MB1, Abou-Setta AM2, Chauhan BF2, Rabbani R2, Lys J2, Copstein L2, Mann A2, Jeyaraman MM2, Reid AE2, Fiander M2, MacKay DS2, McGavock J2, Wicklow B2, Zarychanski R2.



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    Abstract

    BACKGROUND:

    Nonnutritive sweeteners, such as aspartame, sucralose and stevioside, are widely consumed, yet their long-term health impact is uncertain. We synthesized evidence from prospective studies to determine whether routine consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners was associated with long-term adverse cardiometabolic effects.

    METHODS:

    We searched MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Library (inception to January 2016) for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated interventions for nonnutritive sweeteners and prospective cohort studies that reported on consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners among adults and adolescents. The primary outcome was body mass index (BMI). Secondary outcomes included weight, obesity and other cardiometabolic end points.

    RESULTS:

    From 11 774 citations, we included 7 trials (1003 participants; median follow-up 6 mo) and 30 cohort studies (405 907 participants; median follow-up 10 yr). In the included RCTs, nonnutritive sweeteners had no significant effect on BMI (mean difference -0.37 kg/m2; 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.10 to 0.36; I2 9%; 242 participants). In the included cohort studies, consumption of nonnutritive sweeteners was associated with a modest increase in BMI (mean correlation 0.05, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.06; I2 0%; 21 256 participants). Data from RCTs showed no consistent effects of nonnutritive sweeteners on other measures of body composition and reported no further secondary outcomes. In the cohort studies, consumption of nonnutritive sweeteners was associated with increases in weight and waist circumference, and higher incidence of obesity, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular events. Publication bias was indicated for studies with diabetes as an outcome.

    INTERPRETATION:

    Evidence from RCTs does not clearly support the intended benefits of nonnutritive sweeteners for weight management, and observational data suggest that routine intake of nonnutritive sweeteners may be associated with increased BMI and cardiometabolic risk. Further research is needed to fully characterize the long-term risks and benefits of nonnutritive sweeteners. Protocol registration: PROSPERO-CRD42015019749.

    © 2017 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.
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  10. #10
    Artificial sweeteners don’t cause cancer, they don’t make you gain weight, and there’s no good evidence that they cause diabetes or metabolic disease. And, despite recent headlines, there’s definitely no reason to believe that they are bad for your gut microbiome.




    https://medium.com/@gidmk/artificial-sweeteners-arent-dangerous-a06c28385f7c



    https://medium.com/the-method/diet-d...u-54c9e5d06c30
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  11. #11
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    Onneksi ei tarvitse kuunnella maksettujen trollejen juttuja, kun voi itse lukea ne tutkimusartikkelit ja havaita dramaattisesti heikentyneen insuliinisensitiivisyyden. Sen sijaan näiden vaikutukset suolistobakteeristoon ovat epäselvät.
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  12. #12
    Lainaa Alkuperäinen lähettäjä Anssi Manninen Lue viesti
    Onneksi ei tarvitse kuunnella maksettujen trollejen juttuja, kun voi itse lukea ne tutkimusartikkelit ja havaita dramaattisesti heikentyneen insuliinisensitiivisyyden. Sen sijaan näiden vaikutukset suolistobakteeristoon ovat epäselvät.
    Lihavuus selittää heikentyneen insuliinisensitiivisyyden.

    Onko missään tutkimuksissa otettu huomioon lihavuus ja sosioekonominen status?
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  14. #13
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    http://www.diabetesincontrol.com/non...who-are-obese/

    “There seem to be differential effects of sucralose on glucose metabolism in normal-weight people and in people with obesity, so previous findings in lean subjects cannot be extrapolated to what will be the effects of sucralose in subjects with obesity (and vice versa),” said Marta Yanina Pepino De Gruev, PhD, assistant professor in food science and human nutrition at the University of Illinois in Urbana. “Clinicians may find surprising that sucralose is not metabolically inert, as generally thought, at least for people with obesity.

    “People who are at risk for diabetes or obesity … those may be the people who are more likely to choose artificial sweeteners because they may be more likely to be dieting,” said Dr. Rebecca Brown, an endocrinologist at the National Institutes of Health who has studied artificial sweeteners but was not involved in the current research.

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  16. #14
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    Stevialla taitaa olla alhaisin ADI-arvo, eli sitä voi syödä vähiten makeuteen suhteutettuna.

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  18. #15

  19. #16
    Aspartaami ei ole myrkkyä – näin paljon light-limua saa juoda päivässä


    https://www.mtv.fi/lifestyle/hyvaa-e...896#gs.7qpn1=c
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  20. #17
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    Lainaa Alkuperäinen lähettäjä Kullitar Lue viesti
    Aspartaami ei ole myrkkyä – näin paljon light-limua saa juoda päivässä


    https://www.mtv.fi/lifestyle/hyvaa-e...896#gs.7qpn1=c
    Tämän artikkelin julkaisuhetkellä ei ollut saatavilla sitä dataa, mitä nyt on.
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  21. #18
    Dona:n käyttäjäkuva
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    Layne Norton instassa:

    https://www.instagram.com/p/BouyyKYA...en-by=biolayne

    Artificial sweeteners are toxic to gut bacteria???? Not so fast media zealots. BioLayne with your science check in here. A new study (Measuring Artificial Sweeteners Toxicity Using Bioluminescent Bacteria Panel Molecules. 2018 Sep 25;23(10)) has got everyone flipping the fuck out over artificial sweeteners saying they are toxic to gut bacteria.
    .
    Everyone chill the F out for a minute and let’s look at what the paper actually examined. The researchers took strains of E. coli that bioluminesce when stressed with toxins and exposed them to different levels of various artificial sweeteners and found that a few strains of E. Coli were stressed by dosages of sucralose equivalent to 1000mg/L and saccharin equivalent to 2000mg/L.
    .
    Open and shut case right? Artificial sweeteners are going to kill you, your family, kick your dog, and steal your bike.
    .
    Not so fast.
    .
    First off the study is what we call ‘in vitro’ meaning they put these cells in a Petri dish and poured artificial sweeteners directly on them and watched what happened... not exactly physiological.
    .
    Further, they only examined a few strains of E. Coli... there are over a thousand species of bacteria living in the gut, so let’s exercise caution before extrapolating results.
    .
    Finally, the lowest dose that caused stress on the bacteria was still almost 6 time greater than what is found in the food supply! Anything can be toxic given a high enough dose, even water! And for most of the strains it required dosages ten to one hundred fold more than that to cause stress! So at minimum you’re gonna need like 6 liters of diet soda consumed all at once, and assume that you only have E. Coli in your gut, and that the artificial sweeteners are going to be directly exposed right to the bacteria like on a Petri dish... sorry, physiology don’t play like that.
    .
    The headlines read ‘Artificial sweeteners toxic to gut bacteria.’ Catchy, but inaccurate AF. What they should have read was ‘Sucralose and saccharin cause stress to some E. Coli strains in vitro when exposed to supra-physiological doses.’ This is an accurate title, not catchy enough for social media or mainstream media though. In short: chill the fuck out ��
    Shakes are for fakes, eat steaks -Stan Efferding

  22. #19
    Mr.Tampax holmesinjones:n käyttäjäkuva
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    ei mitään keinotekoisilla aineilla makeutettua sisuksiin,sen olen tiennyt jo vuosia

    Vain aito sokeri kelpaa
    Ties missä mielentilassa kirjoittelen

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  24. #20
    EFSA on julkaissut alustavan kannanottonsa aspartaamin turvallisuudesta. Nyt tämä luonnos (draft) on luettavissa EFSA:n sivuilla, ja kansalaisten, teollisuuden sekä järjestöjen kommentoitavana.

    EFSA kävi läpi kaiken relevantin julkaistun ja julkaisemattoman kirjallisuuden ja päätteli, että aspartaami on turvallista sellaisina käyttömäärinä mikä on tavanomaista ja aiemmin maksimikäyttösuosituksina määrätty. Kun noudatetaan ADI-arvoa (max 40 mg/kehon painokilo/pv):

    Aspartaami ei aiheuta syöpääAspartaami ei aiheuta raskauden aikana vaaraa äidille, ei sikiölleAspartaami ei aiheuta muuta oleellista riskiä terveydelle

    Limsat saavat sisältää aspartaamia 600 mg/L (useimmat eivät sisällä näin paljon). Tämä määrää tarkoittaisi pelkkänä limsana:

    100 kiloinen aikuinen saisi ”juoda” aspartaamia 4000 mg/pv eli vähän alle 7 litraa aspartaamilla makeutettu kevytlimsaa*50 kiloinen lapsi saisi ”juoda” aspartaamia 2000 mg/pv eli reilun 3 litraa*aspartaamilla makeutettu kevytlimsaa

    Aspartaamin aineenvaihduntatuotteita saadaan ihan tavallisesta sekaravinnosta, mm. maidosta, hedelmistä, kasviksista ja alkoholijuomista, joten tuollaisia määriä ei todellisuudessa voi juoda.*Aspartaami metaboloituu elimistössä metanoliksi, asparagiinihapoksi ja fenyylialaniiniksi. Raportin mukaan ADI-arvon mukaisella aspartaamin saannilla:

    Metanolin saannista keskimäärin n. 1-10 % tulee aspartaamista. Yli 90 % metanolista tulee alkoholijuomista, kasviksien ja hedelmien pektiinistä ja endogeenisesti muutoinFenyylialaniinin päivittäisestä saannista tulee n. 5 % aspartaamista. Yli 95 % tulee maidosta ja muista proteiinin lähteistä jne.

    EFSA:n mukaan rasvattomasta maidosta tulee 6 kertaa enemmän fenyylialaniinia ja*kuin vastaavasta annoksesta aspartamilla makeutettua kevytlimsaa. Pahimpana myrkkynä blogosfäärin äärilaidoilla pidetystä metanolista 80 % syntyy endogeenisesti elimistössä esimerkiksi hedelmien ja marjojen pektiinistä.

    Koe-eläintutkimuksissa aspartaamin annos*4000*mg/kg/pv oli koe-eläimille turvallinen.

    Että semmoista. Ja ken ei edelleenkään usko aspartaamin turvallisuuteen kohtuukäytössä, niin käyttää vaikka steviaa. Sokerilimsa nyt on huonoin valinta monesta eri syystä. Vesi rulaa.

    Lähde

    EFSA: DRAFT Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of aspartame (E 951) as a food additive 8.1.2013

    https://www.pronutritionist.net/2013...n-turvallista/
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