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Viestiketju: Keinotekoiset makeuttajat, kognitiiviset kyvyt ja hippokampus

  1. #1
    Anssi Manninen:n käyttäjäkuva
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    Keinotekoiset makeuttajat, kognitiiviset kyvyt ja hippokampus

    Tuoreen rottatutkimuksen mukaan kaikki suosituimmat keinotekoiset makeutusaineet (aspartaami, sakariini, sukraloosi) vaikuttavat negatiivisesti kognitiivisiin kykyihin ja vaurioittavat hippokampuksen rakenteita. Hippokampuksella on keskeinen rooli muun muassa deklaratiivisen muistin toiminnassa.

    Tiivistelmä

    J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2018 Jun;32(6):e22053. doi: 10.1002/jbt.22053. Epub 2018 Apr 16.

    Evaluation of long-term effects of artificial sweeteners on rat brain: a biochemical, behavioral, and histological study.

    Erbaş O, Erdoğan MA, Khalilnezhad A, Solmaz V, Gürkan FT, Yiğittürk G, Eroglu HA, Taskiran D.

    Abstract

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of artificial sweeteners (aspartame, saccharin, and sucralose) on rat brain. Twenty-four adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were included in the study. The control group (n = 6) received regular tap water, whereas other groups received aspartame (3 mg/kg/day, n = 6,) or saccharin (3 mg/kg/day, n = 6) or sucralose (1.5 mg/kg/day, n = 6) in the drinking water. Following 6 weeks, the passive avoidance learning (PAL) test was performed to evaluate the neurobehavioral effects of sweeteners. The brains were assessed for lipid peroxides, neuron count, and Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrated that chronic intake of sweeteners significantly impaired PAL performance in all groups. Hippocampal CA1-CA3 areas revealed significantly lower neuronal count in aspartame and increased GFAP expression in all groups. Brain lipid peroxides were significantly higher in all groups. Our findings suggest that long-term consumption of artificial sweeteners may have harmful effects on cognition and hippocampal integrity in rats.
    DOMINUS NUTRITION OY
    www.dominusnutrition.fi

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  4. #3
    Anssi Manninen:n käyttäjäkuva
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    Tästä tutkimuksesta tuli mieleen opiskeluajat, kun olin tekemässä eläintutkimuksia Oulun lääkiksen koe-eläinkeskuksessa. Proffa selostaa, että "Pistä sit ne rotat tohon giljotiiniin ja kun pää leikattu pois niin siitä ruhosta on kätevä kaataa veret suoraan labrapulloihin analyysiä varten". Alkuun se tuntui todella karmeelta, mutta muutama tunti myöhemmin pystyi syömään samalla kun katkoi niitä päitä.
    DOMINUS NUTRITION OY
    www.dominusnutrition.fi

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  6. #4
    Foorumin toiseksi huonoin penkkaaja Rambo:n käyttäjäkuva
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    Lainaa Alkuperäinen lähettäjä Anssi Manninen Lue viesti
    Tästä tutkimuksesta tuli mieleen opiskeluajat, kun olin tekemässä eläintutkimuksia Oulun lääkiksen koe-eläinkeskuksessa. Proffa selostaa, että "Pistä sit ne rotat tohon giljotiiniin ja kun pää leikattu pois niin siitä ruhosta on kätevä kaataa veret suoraan labrapulloihin analyysiä varten". Alkuun se tuntui todella karmeelta, mutta muutama tunti myöhemmin pystyi syömään samalla kun katkoi niitä päitä.
    Ei saatana
    Lähetetty minun MotoG3 laitteesta Tapatalkilla.

  7. #5
    Anssi Manninen:n käyttäjäkuva
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    J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2018 Aug 21:1-11. doi: 10.1080/15287394.2018.1502560. [Epub ahead of print]

    Intestinal Metabolism and Bioaccumulation of Sucralose In Adipose Tissue In The Rat.

    Bornemann V, Werness SC, Buslinger L, Schiffman SS.


    Abstract

    The aim of this study was to (1) determine if the organochlorine artificial sweetener sucralose is metabolized in rat intestine with repeated dosing and (2) examine whether sucralose might bioaccumulate in rat adipose tissue. Sucralose was administered to 10 rats by gavage daily for 40 days at an average dosage of 80.4 mg/kg/day. The dosages were within the range utilized in historical toxicology studies submitted for regulatory approval in North America, Europe, and Asia. Feces and urine were collected individually from each animal for every 24-hr period during the 40-day dosing period. Analysis of the urine and fecal extracts by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) revealed two new biotransformation products that have not previously been reported. These two metabolites are both acetylated forms of sucralose that are less polar and hence more lipophilic than sucralose itself. These metabolites were present in urine and feces throughout the sucralose dosing period and still detected at low levels in the urine 11 days after discontinuation of sucralose administration and 6 days after sucralose was no longer detected in the urine or feces. The finding of acetylated sucralose metabolites in urine and feces do not support early metabolism studies, on which regulatory approval was based, that claimed ingested sucralose is excreted unchanged (i.e. not metabolized). The historical metabolic studies apparently failed to detect these metabolites in part because investigators used a methanol fraction from feces for analysis along with thin layer chromatography and a low-resolution linear radioactivity analyzer. Further, sucralose was found in adipose tissue in rats two weeks after cessation of the 40-day feeding period even though this compound had disappeared from the urine and feces. Thus, depuration of sucralose which accumulated in fatty tissue requires an extended period of time after discontinuation of chemical ingestion. These new findings of metabolism of sucralose in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and its accumulation in adipose tissue were not part of the original regulatory decision process for this agent and indicate that it now may be time to revisit the safety and regulatory status of this organochlorine artificial sweetener.
    DOMINUS NUTRITION OY
    www.dominusnutrition.fi

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    Ovatko stevioliglykosidit tässä suhteessa jotenkin parempia? Niitä näyttää löytyvän Dominuksen lisäravinteista.

  9. #7
    Anssi Manninen:n käyttäjäkuva
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    Lainaa Alkuperäinen lähettäjä tykki25 Lue viesti
    Ovatko stevioliglykosidit tässä suhteessa jotenkin parempia? Niitä näyttää löytyvän Dominuksen lisäravinteista.
    Ovat. Meidän FIRMITAS -valmisteessa hyvin pieni määrä stevioliglykosideja. REFECTIO:ssa ei ole mitään makeutusainetta.
    DOMINUS NUTRITION OY
    www.dominusnutrition.fi

  10. #8
    Enver:n käyttäjäkuva
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    Eihän nämä nyt mitään haitallisuutta vielä todista. Joku pieni turkkilainen rottakoe, jota vastaan löytyy vastaavia kokeita, joissa samaa haittaa ei ole havaittu.

    Olihan ne italialaiset rottakokeetkin aikoinaan julkisuudessa, että aiheuttaisi muka syöpää, vaikka näin ei sitten ollutkaan.

  11. #9
    Anssi Manninen:n käyttäjäkuva
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    Lainaa Alkuperäinen lähettäjä Enver Lue viesti
    Joku pieni turkkilainen rottakoe, jota vastaan löytyy vastaavia kokeita, joissa samaa haittaa ei ole havaittu.
    Tutkijat siis toistivat ne tutkimukset, joihin sukraloosin myyntilupa perustui.

    "The dosages were within the range utilized in historical toxicology studies submitted for regulatory approval in North America, Europe, and Asia"

    "The researchers used the same experimental model used by the Food & Drug Administration (FDA) to assess the safety of foods based on accepted daily intake. In this case, that involved administering an average dose of 80.4 milligrams/kilogram/day to 10 rats for 40 days. Urine and feces from the rats were collected and assessed for those 40 days, and for the following two weeks. At the end of the two-week follow-up period, fatty tissue from a subset of the rats was also tested.

    The researchers, from North Carolina State University and Avazyme Inc. -- an analytical testing company -- used techniques designed to detect both fat- and water-soluble metabolites. That's significant because industry did not use state-of-the-art techniques that targeted the full suite of fat-soluble metabolites in the studies it submitted to the FDA when seeking FDA approval for sucralose.

    "Our techniques were more suited to extracting and preserving fat-soluble metabolites," says Susan Schiffman, an adjunct professor at NC State and co-author of the recent study. "We were also able to use state-of-the-art analytical techniques to identify those metabolites.

    "We found two metabolites in urine and feces throughout the sucralose dosing period," Schiffman says. "Those metabolites could still be detected in the urine 11 days after we stopped giving the rats sucralose, and six days after the sucralose itself could no longer be detected. That's particularly interesting, given that the metabolism studies that the FDA's approval were based on reported that ingested sucralose was not metabolized."

    Specifically, the metabolites were acetylated compounds, which are highly lipophilic -- meaning they are easily dissolved in fat. That means they are more likely to stick around in the body.

    In addition, the researchers found that sucralose itself was detected in the adipose, or fatty, tissues of rats two weeks after the rats had stopped receiving sucralose.

    "Based on previous studies, we know that sucralose can be passed on by nursing mothers in their breastmilk," Schiffman says. "And, among other findings, we know that sucralose can reduce the abundance of beneficial bacteria in the gut. Our new study shows that sucralose is also creating metabolites whose potential health effects we know little or nothing about.

    "As a result, we feel that it may be time to revisit the safety and regulatory status of sucralose," Schiffman says."
    DOMINUS NUTRITION OY
    www.dominusnutrition.fi